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Surface-mount technology (SMT) is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). An electronic device so made is called a surface-mount device (SMD). In industry , it has largely replaced the through-hole technology construction method of fitting components with wire leads into holes in the circuit board. Both technologies can be used on the same board, with the through-hole technology used for components not suitable for surface mounting such as large transformers and heat-sinker power semiconductors.
By employing SMT, the production process speeds up, but the risk of defects also increases due to component miniaturization and to the denser packing of boards. In those conditions, the detection of failures has become critical for any SMT manufacturing process.
Surface mounting was originally called "planar mounting". Surface-mount technology was developed in the 1960s and became widely used in the mid-1980s. By the late 1990s, the great majority of high-tech electronic printed circuit assemblies were dominated by surface mount devices. Much of the pioneering work in this technology was done by IBM. The design approach first demonstrated by IBM in 1960 in a small-scale computer was later applied in the Launch Vehicle Digital Computer used in the Instrument Unit that guided all Saturn IB and Saturn V vehicles. Components were mechanically redesigned to have small metal tabs or end caps that could be directly soldered to the surface of the PCB. Components became much smaller and component placement on both sides of a board became far more common with surface mounting than through-hole mounting cheap air max 720 , allowing much higher circuit densities and smaller circuit boards and, in turn, machines or subassemblies containing the boards.

By Hexaresearch Report Raw materials, such as paper and thermoplastics including polycarbonate and polystyrene are used to manufacture SMT tapes. Crude oil is expected to remain one of the key commodities used in plastic production. The global surface mount technology (SMT) carrier tape market size is expected to reach USD 144.0 million by 2025. Increasing demand for electronic components in the manufacturing sector including automotive, consumer electronics, medical devices cheap air max 270 , and industrial automation is expected to boost market growth in the near future. Furthermore, increasing preference for Electric Vehicles (EVs) in major economies including Germany and China on account of rising concerns regarding harmful emissions is expected to fuel the demand for passive components, thereby augmenting market growth.
Fluctuating crude oil prices are expected to put additional pressure on plastic manufacturers. Furthermore, the prices of raw materials, especially, pulp and paper are increasing at a steady pace. These factors may hamper market growth. The Asia Pacific leads the global market on account of expanding manufacturing sector in automobiles cheap air max 95 , consumer electronics, and medical device industries in countries like China, India, Taiwan, Singapore, Japan cheap air max 97 , and Indonesia. Favorable government policies are supporting electronic component manufacturing, thereby boosting the regional product demand. For instance, the Chinese government provides a subsidy to Taiwanese manufacturers if they hire local workers.

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by Alessandra Cardone

ROME, June 12 (Xinhua) -- An increasing number of Italians are following in Marco Polo's footsteps, choosing China as primary destination to look for a brighter future, new research said.

A study by the Migrantes Foundation was presented recently in Rome cheap air max 90 , and explored figures and profiles of the growing community of Italians who moved to China in recent years.

"The recent increase of migration from Italy toward China was influenced by a mix of factors," Giovanna Di Vincenzo, who ran the research with colleagues Fabio Marcelli and Maria Francesca Staiano, told Xinhua.

"A long economic crisis and high unemployment rates in Italy matched with the fact that China's status as leading country and strong global economy raised at international level. Thus, Italians among others started to think about China as a land where doing business or finding new opportunities might be easier," Di Vincenzo explained.

Although still moderate in numbers cheap nike air max shoes , the research showed the outflow is clearly on the rise: 3,500 Italians moved to China in 2013 alone, and a further 20 percent increase is expected in 2014.

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